Laboratory medicine is basically divided into two parts and each part of laboratory is further subdivided into multiple units. These two parts are :-
- ANATOMIC PATHOLOGY
- CLINICAL PATHOLOGY
- Anatomic pathology:-It includes are histopathology, cytopathology, and electron microscopy. Academically, each unit is studied alone in one course. Other courses related to this section include anatomy, physiology, histology, pathology, and pathophysiology.
- Clinical pathology:- It includes:
- Clinical Microbiology: It can divided into five different units These are: bacteriology, virology, parasitology, immunology, and mycology.
- Clinical Chemistry: This is mostly a busy section and it include instrumental analysis of blood components, enzymology, toxicology and endocrinology.
- Hematology: This section consists of automated and manual analysis of blood cells. It includes two sub parts i.e, coagulation and blood bank.
- Genetics is specially studied along about cytogenetics.
- Reproductive biology: Semen analysis, Sperm bank and assisted reproductive technology.
In many countries, mostly there are two main types of labs that process the majority of medical specimens.
- Hospital Laboratory
- Private Laboratory
Hospital laboratories:- are related to a hospital, and perform tests on patients.
Private laboratories:- receive samples from general practitioners, insurance companies, clinical research sites and other health clinics for analysis. For extremely specialised tests, samples may go to a research laboratory. Most of samples are sent between different labs for uncommon tests. It is more cost effective if a particular laboratory specializes in a rare test, receiving specimens from other labs, while sending away tests it cannot do.